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Messages - Bertrand Mareschal

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Bertrand Mareschal / Re: Abstract
« on: May 11, 2020, 02:43:50 PM »
Dear Ivan,

I am letting my beard grow so that I will be your Santa next Winter ;-)

In the meantime, please take care and make your paper ready for O&D!


Zhor Chergui / Registered
« on: May 03, 2020, 06:54:29 PM »
Thank you!

Bertrand Mareschal / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:49:42 PM »
Outranking & Decision - A new open journal for the outranking community

Do you believe in impact factors?

I do NOT!

And that is the main reason why we (22 colleagues today in the Editorial Board) are launching a new open journal dedicated to our outranking community: Outranking & Decision (O&D):

Open means that:
  • We are not linked to any commercial publishing company.
  • Nobody gets paid for their contribution to the journal.
  • Submissions are free.
  • Publication is free.
  • All papers published are freely available to everybody.
All this is made possible by new technologies:
  • We are using the OJS/PKP system.
  • We don't need printed issues anymore.
Papers presented at the PROMETHEE Days 2020 meeting are all eligible to be published in O&D.

Gabriela Fernandez Barberis / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:38:50 PM »
Dra. Gabriela Fernández Barberis
Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics
School of Business and Economics
University San Pablo CEU Madrid - Spain
Tel: +34 91 456 63 00
Fax: +34 91 554 8496
The 2030 Agenda is a challenge that concerns all countries of the world. The last Sustainable Development Report 2019 includes the six broad transformation that are necessary to implement. This is the fourth annual edition of the Report that analyses the performance of the countries in the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This year’s report includes a number of new figures and it takes as a starting point The World in 2050 (TWI2050) Initiative. New indicators have been included to refine the measurement of the international spill over effects and the living no one behind principle.
In this paper, we study the performance of OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries in those SDGs link with the sixth pillar of the essential transformations required: The Digital Revolution for Sustainable Development. We present a multicriteria analysis using PROMETHEE in order to study the real situation of each country to determine the perspectives on the 2030 horizon.
Key Words: Digital Revolution for Sustainable Development; 2030 Agenda; Multicriteria Decision Aid; PROMETHEE Methods; Visual PROMETHEE.

Assia Lamzah / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:36:43 PM »
Knowledge-based urban development and climate change in Morocco
The level of life quality of a region is the result of different and complex factors such as the quality of the environment, the quality and availability of services, the social equity, economic development …etc. Thus, developing a region and evaluating its performance is not an easy task. These factors are summarized in the concept of knowledge-based urban development (KBUD). The concept aims mainly to increasing the region’s competitively, the attraction of skilled human resources and investments, and more importantly support the region’s residents ameliorating their standards of living and welfare. In Morocco, urban development experienced several and significant changes over the past 50 years, which has had an unexpected impact on its social and spatial character. In addition to those “historical and sociopolitical” changes, the climate change constitutes a new factor that needs to be taken into consideration in mapping and conceiving the urban development of Moroccan cities. This paper mains at understanding the relationship between the urban and spatial development, the climate change and the quality of life of the local residents, in the case of Ourika Valley, Morocco. It aims to analyzing the process through which Ourika local population adapts land use and spatial morphological planning to face climate change, mainly flood and landslide hazards, and improve their quality of life. In recent decades, climate change appears to have accelerated globally. Therefore, it becomes necessary to question the reality of these changes, their causes, their future and their immediate and remote consequences on health, economy, ecosystems, land use and lifestyle. Due to its location, Morocco, as a Mediterranean country, is sensitive to current climate variability and future as well as climate change. However, in North Africa and according to the fourth IPCC report "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change", a decrease in rainfall of up to 20% by the end of the century is expected and temperature is expected to reach an increase of 2.5 ° C to 5.5 ° C. Also, the combination of decreasing supply and strong population growth aggravates the stressed water situation in the region. Ourika watershed is located in the western center of Morocco, in the northwest of the high Atlas. It is characterized by dramatic topography, a variable and changing climate combined to a high human pressure. The main river has its source in the foothills of the High Atlas. The Ourika River has shaped its course by cutting crystalline rocks and sedimentary formations, carving deep valleys and steep slopes. It has specific geological, geographical and hydrological characteristics. The built environment is made of local materials and is characterized by a compact morphology. The human settlement, the site specificities and the local know how produced a specific architecture with a specific land use and relationship to landscape. Because of the specific hydrological, geological and geographical context, Ourika Watershed is very exposed to natural risks, such as flood and landslide. All this, combined to climate change and variability, produce a territory with a disadvantaged population that lives on sites unsuitable for housing construction, such as mountainsides, areas threatened by flooding, landslides or other risks related to weather. This caused the loss of human lives and economic losses. Climate change affects therefore the social, economic and environmental aspects of life in the valley. Therefore, this situation impacts not only the spatial planning and architectural development of the region, but also the level and life mode of the local people. One of the aspects that will be considered in this article is land use and housing security as a product of the territory and also of the local peoples’ aim to adapt and avoid the risks previously mentioned. This essay focuses on climate change and variability and their impact on local architecture and urban morphology as well as on local peoples’ way of life. Knowledge-based tools are used to analyze this impact. One of the main objectives is to propose practical recommendations’ about planning and architecture and provide critical signals of a significant turn of events in the planning process that policy makers or practitioners in the field ought to be able to apply in daily work.

Aomar Ibourk / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:35:18 PM »
Business Intelligence: Endowing actors of sustainable development to improve the accompanying of the youth
Aomar IBOURK, Professor at UCAM, GRES, Marrakech
Riad HANSALI, researcher in International Management & Logistics, Marrakech
Globalisation has reached a transitional period of time, that rushes all economies into rethinking
their business culture; and emerging countries are as concerned as the leading powers now more
than ever. The rise of the youth has stimulated the global economy in a way that coerced
governments to listen and to reach out with helping strategies.
In Morocco, we are hereby more focused on providing the necessary and basic support, in terms
of both training and financing, and under the flag of sustainable development. INTILAKA,
known as the integrated business support and financing program, launched few weeks ago, is one
among the mentioned programs, that is generating great enthusiasm among young people.
Moreover, the banking sector reaffirms its commitment to the success of the said program.
Based on confirmative reports, is has been stated by the Minister of the Economy, Finance and
Administration Reform, the aim of the program goes beyond the act of financing into
encompassing the structural transformation of the economy.
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It is to mention that the latter program has been created in order to complete and accomplish
what the previous program (Moukawalati) had failed to. The Intilaka program has been
developed to meet royal directives and includes three products.
The first product is “Damane Intilak” which aims to cover a large section of national
entrepreneurs, in particular self-entrepreneurs, holders of graduate projects, different structures
which are today in the informal sector to bring them back to the formal sector, also small
businesses at service level. It is therefore a question of accompanying through the most difficult
phases because access to financing is always difficult at the level of the creation of the company
and during the first five years of existence when the companies are fragile and are more exposed
to external disruptions.
Technically, this product is intended for companies who have less than five years of existence,
which makes or plans to make less than 10 MDH, and whose request of the banking sector
relates to two types of financing: either an investment loan during the creation phase or to
finance short-term operations. Another feature of this product is that it is capped at 1.2 MDH at
an interest rate of 2%, with a Central Guarantee Fund of up to 80%. This product will also
benefit from the automatic granting of guarantees upon agreement of the bank.
Its rural counterpart also concerns medium and small businesses in the agricultural sector and
other sectors as well as small agricultural activities. Any similar project is likely to have a strong
impact on the development of the rural entrepreneurship. Again, the Central Guarantee Fund
offers its guarantee to bring serenity to the banking sector. The loan is capped at 1,2 MDH at
1.75% interest rate.
The last product’s purpose “Start TPE”, is to finance working capital requirements, it was capped
at 50.000 DH at 0% interest rate. It is an honorary loan that the company agrees to repay as soon
as the project begins to make profit.
Since they are more engaged in the matter, and in accordance to the main topic of this paper, the
endowing actors of sustainable development are banks essentially. The idea is that they should
implement the most practical information systems in their facilities, in order to gather reliable
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and significant amounts of data to be turned into factual information about their clients.
Exploiting data science and back it up with big data analytics is what makes an organisation
business intelligent. In others words, banks are to collect reliable information about loan
candidates before confirming any file acceptance; this will allow them the predict the insolvency
of the young entrepreneurs. By doing so, these organisms can simultaneously exert genuine risk
assessment and keep on stimulating the national economy.
The main purpose of the paper is to explain how artificial intelligence practices and big Data
science can be deployed as risk assessment and insolvency forecast learning methods,
maneuvered by the banking sector as a major contributor into sustainable development.
Narrowing the gap between political insight on sustainable development and insolvency risk
management, is by far the main challenge that needs to be dealt with. The added value is to
expose the relevance of a “yet-not-explored” path, and to project its importance on concrete case
The studies conducted in this matter are mainly focused on:
• Transitioning from a classical and passive “benchmark”, into a methodical and technologically
based strategy.
• Showing the importance of endowing actors of sustainable development both as a social and an
economic leverage.
• Emphasizing on the importance of Big Data science and AI, to protect actors of sustainable
development from insolvency risks.
• Progressing from insolvency forecasts and preventives measures, into Business Intelligence.
• Data science
• Preventive measures
• Artificial intelligence
• sustainable development
• Insolvency forecast
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• BERNARD MARR, “What Is The Relationship Between KPIs And Big Data?” 1st edition; December
• Narayanan, S., Samuel, P. & Chacko, M. “Improving prediction with enhanced Distributed Memorybased
Resilient Dataset Filter”. J Big Data 7, 13 (2020).
• Rizk, A., Elragal, A. Data science: “developing theoretical contributions in information systems via
text analytics”. J Big Data 7, 7 (2020).
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Nassima Dhaiman / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:34:21 PM »
Design and Analysis of Microstrip Patch Array Antenna with Different Configurations at 16GHz
The Fifth-Generation Mobile communications system actually is the most important subject in the telecommunication research, to find the solutions to the different difficulty of the high frequency. Design of three different array antennas is presented in this paper. The design is done for Ku-Band Applications at 16 GHz. The substrate height is 1.6 mm and the dielectric constant is 4.4 of FR4-epoxy. Simulation is done in HFSS and the results are exhibited, directivity, gain, radiation patterns, 3dB Beamwidths, Side Lobe levels, VSWR and Radiation efficiency are analyzed in detail. Also, an Electromagnetic Band Gap structure was used and analysed with the last design which shows an increase in directivity and gain.

Mohamed Manaouch / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:33:42 PM »
Assessment the Effects of Land-Use / Land-Cover Changes on Soil Loss and Sediment Yield Using WaTEM/SEDEM Model: Case study Ziz upper watershed in SE-Morocco.
Land use and land cover (LULC) are directly related to water erosion and sediment yields. A spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model can be used as a good tool to assess the effects of changes in land use on erosion processes. However, their calibration requires a lot of data, sometimes non-existent. In this work, WaTEM / SEDEM model of spatial distribution of sediments and their delivery to rivers was applied to a large basin (4435 km-2) in the Moroccan High Atlas. Model calibration was carried out based on a sediment yield recorded during the period from 1973 to 1990 at Hassan Eddakhil dam in the catchment outlet. Validation of the model results was made with a sediment yield recorded from 1991 to 2009. Three LULC scenarios were modeled by reproducing land use/ land cover in 1936 and in 1957 and then a hypothetical future scenario. The comparison of these simulations with the current situation of LULC shows that erosion rates increase from 1,503,066 t. yr-1 to 2,239,573 t. yr-1 and an increase in specific sediment yields from 0.37 t. ha-1. yr-1 to 5.6 t. ha-1. yr-1. These results can be explained by the interactions between bioclimatic factors and ecologically inadequate and destabilizing human interventions (deforestation). The great anthropogenic pressure on the natural resources which lasted in time ended by the outcropping of pavements of stones or soils exposed directly to the erosive processes.

Maher Hushaysh / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:32:37 PM »
Ranking Natural Stone Products Using Promethee Method: The Case of Natural Stone from Hebron Governorate, Palestine
Stone and Marble is the most important productive industrial sector in Palestine. The stone industry is not only significant within local standards but also globally. The demand for the natural stone mainly depends on its quality, which is assessed based on the physical and mechanical specifications of the product. Globally, these specifications are assessed based on five laboratory tests. This paper presents the classification of the natural stone products in Hebron Governorate in Palestine based on the testing results of 23 natural stone types. PROMETHEE-GAIA outranking Multicriteria Decision Aid Methodology is employed to carry out this mission.

Sonali A. Patil / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:31:59 PM »
Channel selection using PROMETHEE-II MCDM technique in SDN enabled IoT environment
Nowadays Software Defined Networking (SDN) is emerging as a promising and safe technology to provide scalable and seamless services to IoT users. In this article, we consider the SDN enabled IoT, referred to as SDN+IoT, which is capable enough to smartly route the IoT traffic and use the underutilized network resources to deliver QoS to IoT users. However, the mass increase in IoT devices and eventually the massive surge of IoT traffic are leaving a huge strain on the SDN enabled Internet of things. In this article, we focus on this issue and highlight the importance of assigning suitable channels to each SDN+IoT switch to avoid potential network congestion and to enhance network throughput. In specific, we consider how to exploit PROMETHEE based multicriteria statistical approach to select the channel when ‘n’ numbers of channels are available for channelizing the IoT traffic. The PROMETHEE-II multicriteria statistical approach has been proved to be one of the best techniques for deciding upon the best alternative when there are multiple alternatives are available. In this article, our objective is to assign the best suitable channel to forward the IoT traffic by making the pairwise comparison of all the alternative paths and by selecting the top-ranked channel where the ranking is provided by PROMETHEE-II MCDM technique. The results show that the proposed technique is capable enough to select the appropriate channel over SDN enabled IoT.

Christiana Koliouska / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:31:05 PM »
Employing Precision Forestry in Greece: A Multicriteria Analysis
Christiana Koliouska and Zacharoula Andreopoulou
Department of Forestry and Natural Environment, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Precision Forestry (PF) is enabled by a wide range of innovative Information and
Communication Technologies (ICT) in the sustainable forest management. PF takes
advantage of ecological processes in forest ecosystems aiming at the environmental
protection. The profitability of forestry is dependent on accurate forest resource
information in order to optimize and complete various forest-management tasks. The main
benefits of employing PF deal with deforestation, forest fires, illegal logging, reduction in
costs of forest mapping and forest management. ICT adoption encompasses electronic data
capture, planning and managing digital data, tight operational control, optimized decisionmaking
and increased selectivity of prescriptions. This paper studies the employ of PF in
Greek Forest Services. The research with the method of questionnaires was conducted in
the first quarter of 2020 in the Forest Services in Central Macedonia, Greece. The Forest
Services were evaluated and ranked according to the level of their digital transformation
using the multicriteria method of PROMETHEE II. According to the results, it is necessary
forest operators to expand the use of ICT and optimize their daily workflow. The optimum
Forest Services are identified and described to be used as models with the highest level of
digital transformation.
Key words: Precision Forestry, Multicriteria Analysis, Information and Communication
Technologies, PROMETHEE II, Greece

Ivan Marovic / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:29:37 PM »
Multi-criteria decision-making in civil engineering – A PROMETHEE way
Ivan Marović
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Rijeka, Radmile Matejčić 3, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
Investment in construction industry’s projects is a complex business process that requires special
attention, seriousness, and social responsibility, not only from direct investor and his/hers project
management team but also from the wider social community. Due to the diversity of civil engineering
disciplines, it is a complex process from a technical/technological, social, environmental, and economic
point of view that requires awareness, attention, clarity, and social responsibility from all involved
stakeholders. Managing such projects is a rather difficult task when one takes into account the
complexity, uncertainties and a large number of activities involved and spread during a long period.
Selecting among a variety of such investment projects can often be challenging because of their
diversity, but also because the various stakeholders view these projects differently. As they are
involved in different stages through projects’ life-cycle, with different possible impacts on the project’s
success, the implementation of their opinions becomes an even greater challenge. In such a complex
environment the need for multiple-criteria analysis and group decision-making is in itself
understandable. During the years, various approaches were presented to help decision-makers in civil
engineering projects during their projects’ life-cycle. Some of those approaches offered more
sustainable decisions than others. Numerous researchers, as well as professionals, used PROMETHEE
methods for such purposes differently. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to provide a systematic
literature review of papers published in Scopus and Web of Science database during the last 20 years
based on PROMETHEE methods in solving problems that occur in managing civil engineering projects.
The findings are categorized according to the objectives pursued and the criteria on which the
evaluation was based are discussed.
Project management, multi-criteria decision-making, PROMETHEE method, civil engineering

Youcef Fekir / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:28:27 PM »
Comparative Approach using Promethee based GIS and Remote Sensing for Forest Fire Risk Assessment in Western Algeria
Fekir Youcef1, MEDERBAL Khalladi2, LARID Mohamed1, HAMADOUCHE Mohammed Amine3, ANTEUR Djamel4
1 Water and Soil Conservation Laboratory, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University of Mostaganem, Algeria
2 Geomatics and Sustainable Development Laboratory, University of Tiaret, Algeria
3 Geomatics, Ecology and Environnement Laboratory, University of Mustapha Stambouli, Mascara 29000, Algeria
4 Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University of Moulay Taher, Saida 20000, Algeria
Email:;;; ;;
Forest ecosystems are the most important natural source for our environment. These last years, the forest ecosystems of the Mediterranean basin have experienced a remarkable degradation due to fires that continue to destroy the forest areas from one year to another. Algeria does not escape from this problem. It is considered as a country that is very affected by this phenomenon, which in more than 80% of their causes are anthropogenic. Every year, about 36000 ha are burned due to fires which more than 13414 ha recorded in 2017 by the General Directorate of Forests (DGF). In the western part of Algeria, the forest massif represents more than 29% of the Algerian forest heritag. Of all the problems in the region, fires remain the most devastating factor. To meet against this alarming situation, fighting and fire prevention seem to be the most effective way. These can only be realized through a spatialization of the forest fires risk and the delimitation of very vulnerable areas. Assessment of forest fire risk can be done basing on several factors of both qualittive and/or quantitaive nature such as forest vegetation density, topographic factor (Slope, Aspect) and human activities(distance to roads and setlments). These factor influence differently on the fire spread. The evolution of geospatial techniques such as geographic information systems (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Multi Cretiria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methods have effectively improved solving this type of problem. In this context, this paper aims to assess the risk of forest fires using GIS-based MCDA. The approach consists of a spatialization of the forest fire risk by applying a model that integrates different factors issued from RS data and weighted using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method runing in ArcGIS software. These factors are introduced in a GIS environment as thematic layers to produce a synthetic fire risk map. This study is conducted in the forest of Nesmoth located in the southeast of the Mascara city in western Algeria. The obtained results are compared to the burned area extracted from satellite images issued according the historical fires dates. These results show that the GIS-AMCD combination can provide a very useful tool to forest managers and decision makers to prevent against fires risk.
Key waords: GIS, Remote sensing, Multicriteria Methods, Decision making, Forest fires, Nesmoth

Sofiane Bounaceur / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:27:34 PM »
The notion of mobility within geographical space was founded in the principle reflection, decisions and activities of man, whether in his daily life or in certain specific professions (railway stations, airports, hospitals, etc.). The state of the structure of transport networks and the efficiency and quality of their functioning create a spatial heterogeneity which results in more or less uncomfortable access conditions for the movement between two locations. This affects the travel time. However, the measurements require complete microscopic simulations to determine the increase value in travel time, which in turn makes it possible to predict network performance within congestion situation (functional vulnerability).
In this paper, we suggest a method implemented under a GIS software to evaluate the intrinsic degrees of vulnerability based on travel time in the road network of Tlemcen city (Algeria) as well as on the structural and functional state of the road network and the way length in order to optimize the travel time required for a hospital emergency service. This may reduce death number that is all too often caused by choosing a bad route based on the indicator of accessibility stemming from the length of the shortest way in time and distance.
Keywords: Road network, vulnerability, GIS, accessibility, shortest time path.

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