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Topics - Bertrand Mareschal

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46
Miloud Driss / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:25:25 PM »
An urban traffic circles risk assessment using GIS based Promethee method: Case study of Mascara city, Algeria -
Driss M 1,*, Hamadouche M. A2, Klouche Djedid I3, Bounaceur S4, Amara K5.
1 Laboratory of Sciences and Technology of Water, Mustapha Stambouli University of Mascara, 29000, Algeria.
2 Laboratory Geomatics, Ecology and environment, Mustapha Stambouli University of Mascara, 29000, Algeria.
3Civil Engineering Department, Ibn Khaldoun University of Tiaret, 14000, Algeria.
4Civil Engineering Department, University of Abou-Bekr Belkaid University of Tlemcen, 13000, Algeria.
5Civil Engineering Department, Belhadj Bouchaib University Center of Aïn Témouchent, 46000, Algeria.
*Corresponding author: miloud.driss@univ-mascara.dz
Abstract
Road safety is a major concern in the current situation of the countries. Traffic accidents are predictable and can be reduced by improving the prevention of road risks, particularly at the urban traffic circles level. These urban intersections are particularly sensitive points and the main concern is the performance of a road network. Urban traffic circles must be the subject of a serious and effective study. In this aspect, we developed a model of risk assessment incorporating a multi-criteria analysis approach (MCDA) to a spatial decision aid system based on a geographic information system (GIS). The structured integration of the contribution of environmental and geometric characteristics of urban traffic circles to the Promethee method upgrades decision-making process. In this context, various quantitative and qualitative criteria were selected and weighted to represent the privileged conditions concerning the order and the priority relating to the occurrence of road accidents. The study was carried out using a set of urban traffic circles from the road network of the city of Mascara in the north-west region of Algeria. A sensitivity analysis and the rank test demonstrate that the proposed model is rather stable, demonstrating the robustness of the developed model. Thus, the results show that the approach presented is more effective and beneficial to local decision-makers in the decision-making process.
Keywords: GIS, Promethee, Decision Making, Urban Traffic Circles, Road Accidents.

47
Mohammed Amine Hamadouche / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:24:42 PM »
Integrated Promethee-Electre III and GIS for the network road safety evaluation in Algeria.
Hamadouche M. A1*, Driss M. 2, Mederbal K.3, Anteur D.4, Fekir Y.5, Chrair M.5
1 Laboratory Geomatics, Ecology and environment, University of Mascara, Algeria.
2 Laboratory of Sciences and Technology of Water, University of Mascara, Algeria.
3 Laboratory of Geomatics and Sustainable Development, University of Tiaret, Algeria.
4 Laboratory of Water and Environment, University of Saida, Algeria.
5 Laboratory of Research on Biological Systems and Geomatics, University of Mascara, Algeria.
*Corresponding author: m.hamadouche@univ-mascara.dz
Abstract
The exponential rise in the major risk related to traffic accidents presents a huge public health
problem and development. The traffic accidents are predictable and can be reduced by improving
prevention. In Algeria, 3275 peoples were killed and 31,010 others were injured in 22,507 traffic
accidents that were registered during 2019 by the National Center for Road Security and Prevention.
In this dire situation, many researchers have relied on scientific methods to reduce the phenomenon
of road terrorism.
Traffic accidents problems are complex and influenced by many criteria resulting from different fields,
of qualitative and/or quantitative nature, that have contradictory effect and an unequal importance.
The decision-making process consists to harvest, to synthesize and to interpret information
describing the subject of the decision. The difficulties related to the very great number of possible
solutions, to the diversity of the criteria integrated in the decision-making and to the possibility of the
multitude of decision makers can be circumvented by the combined use of the multicriteria methods
(e.g.: Promethee, Electre III, AHP) and GIS tools.
Thus, the multicriteria methods, by their functions of space aggregation, present solutions of better
compromise. They permit to reduce the whole of the alternatives for the selection of the best/risk
taking into account all factors contributed in a specific problem. The use of a GIS contributes to the
harvest of information, the production of derived information and manipulation of a significant volume
of data that help to consider the problem in all its complexity and to describe the various alternatives.
Through its spatial analysis functions, it contributes to the evaluation of the alternatives according to
criteria's fixed by the decision maker. It is true that the final decision also results from other
processes, such as political strategies, that cannot be formalized, but the scientific identification of the
best solution constitutes a significant help to the decision-making.
In this paper, a Geographic Information System (GIS) based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis
(MCDA) has been developed to predict the road network black zones.
The study was carried out on the road network in the North West of Algeria. This approach allows
policy makers to assess the relative priorities of different impacts, quantitative or qualitative based on
a set of network studied. Thus, the results obtained show that the presented methods are more
efficient and beneficial.
Keywords: GIS, Multicriteria Methods, Decision Making, Traffic Accidents, Black Zones, Road
Network.

48
Mohamed Zaoui / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:23:25 PM »
Sélection de la meilleure alternative pour un projet routier pour remplacer une section dans une zone sujette aux inondations à l'aide des outils SIG et AMC
La prise de décision implique la sélection de diverses alternatives possibles et implique généralement des ressources financières colossales. De plus, une caractéristique d'un territoire qui rend complexe la prise de décision est son aspect multicritère. Ces critères ont généralement des effets conflictuels et les méthodes d’analyse multicritère sont les plus adéquats pour résoudre ce genre de situation de prise de décision difficile. Les travaux présentés dans cet article portent sur le problème de la prise de décision afin d'identifier le tracé routier le plus favorable vis à vis d'une série de critères topographiques, géométriques, géologiques et économiques. L'objectif principal de cette étude est de sélectionner le meilleur projet routier pour remanier une partie du tronçon routier de la CW 42 reliant la ville de Sidi Belattar à la route nationale 90 (RN 90) à l'aide d'outils SIG et AMC. Cette section de route a été obstruer plusieurs fois ces dernières années lors des inondations hivernales. L'approche proposée porte sur les points suivants : tout d'abord, la détermination des critères pertinents à l'aide du SIG, puis l'évaluation et la classification des différentes alternatives en appliquant la méthode AHP à l'aide l’outil AMC Expert-choice et des algorithmes PROMETHEE-GAIA par l’utilisation de l’outil D-sight, La cohérence des résultats confirme l'efficacité de l'approche proposée. Ces travaux visent à assister les décideurs à ranger quatre projets routiers de la zone d'étude afin de substituer la section vulnérable.

49
Karim Sabri / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:17:27 PM »
PROMETHEE method and multiple criteria performance analysis: Telecommunications and Railways sectors in North Africa
In North African countries, a considerable improvement of the situation of the Telecommunication operators and Railways sectors has been noticed during the nineties. The evolution in these countries was very different depending on their economic policies, their effort of reorganization and their technological change. Theses differences will be exhibited and analyzed by comparing the operators’ performances. Our approach is based on the PROMETHEE method and the software ARGOS, a multiple criteria analysis is performed, taking into account a larger scope of analysis. This method of analysis provides the two dimensions of performance for PROMETHEE: that are the service to the community and the enterprises' performances, often in conflict.

50
Redouane Lachgar / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:16:56 PM »
Evaluating Investment in Infrastructure By The MCDA -The Digital Support of Criteria Evaluation
The realization of an infrastructure project produces several effects on the national economy and the political, social and regional environment. Indeed, the process of evaluation and selection of investment must consider the effects of this kind of projects on all stakeholders. In this context, adoption of multi-criteria approaches as a means of evaluation and selection can contribute to perform a consensus decision process. In fact, many consequences related to this project category and the important number of stakeholders involved in the decision-making process make divergences between interests, goals and main projects perception. On other side, the digital ways of conception, realization and management of infrastructure performs several tools to make those processes easier and unified. Those approaches provide mechanism of collection and processing of many sources of data, which must be combined and involved in the investment decision process. In this paper, we will try to discern the ways of contribution of the digital tools used in conception and performance of infrastructure projects to the process of investment decision making. Thus, we will try to examine the relationship between the criteria observed to make decision and the data performed by the digital tools. The mean objective is to regulate the criteria used in evaluating and selecting investment in major projects according to the data collected and controlled by the digital tools liKe BIM process. These criteria will assess the projects taking into account their characteristics and their quantification by the various stakeholders involved in the decision-making process. To achieve this aim, we propose the several kinds of criteria : Economic, commercial, Technical, Environmental, Political, Social, Financial Criteria…

51
Aissa Taibi / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:16:20 PM »
Exploring public sentiments for selecting industrial zones based on GIS-PROMETHEE integrated system
Combining PROMETHEE method with Geographic information system (GIS) provide decision makers and territory planers with a really interesting ranking model for industrial sites in Algeria. The multi-criteria ranking is based only on socio-economical, technical and environmental criteria. Now with the explosion of social network the geo-sentiment analysis of citizen’s tweets can refine and consolidate the decision in site selection field. This paper firstly proposes tweets geo-sentiment analysis of the citizens in the vicinity of the projects of the industrial zones and then design new criteria and weights based on this analysis, this information is injected in the integrated system GIS-PROMETHEE. The new ranking obtained is satisfactory for all stakeholders with fewer disputes among citizens.

52
Harshada Gorey / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 04:00:29 PM »
PROMETHEE-II MADM approach for selecting the green supplier
The multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method is referred to as a method used for scoring or ranking a finite number of alternatives by considering multiple criteria attached to the alternatives. PROMETHEE is well adapted to the decision problems where a finite set of alternatives is to be outranked subjected to multiple conflicting criteria. This paper proposes a preference of green suppliers using the PROMETHEE-II. Comparable results are presented to check the effect of different preference functions on the final preference. Seven economic and environmental criteria, four suppliers are taken in the green supplier selection problem. The PROMETHEE method begins with an evaluation of alternatives with respect to the criteria. These evaluations essentially need numerical data where their implementation needs information on the relative importance of the criteria and also information on the decision maker’s preference functions. The information is obtained when the decision-makers compared the contribution of the alternatives with respect to each criterion. Different types of preference functions have been used in the implementation. The first net outflows and preference order are obtained using the usual criterion preference function, which is considered as the simplest function. The second net outflows and preference order are obtained using the combination of linear preference function and level preference functions. Both of these functions are chosen based on the nature of the criteria. The results are compared to see the impact of different preference functions.

53
Theodore Tarnanidis / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 03:59:46 PM »
How social media communications combine with the purchase decision-making process: A Multi-Criteria-Decision-Aid approach
Theodore Tarnanidis
Jason Papathanasiou
Maro Vlachopoulou
Bertrand Mareschal
Author affiliation:
Theodore Tarnanidis, Researcher at the Department of Business Administration,
University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece, email: tarnanidis@uom.edu.gr
Jason Papathanasiou, Associate Professor at the Department of Business
Administration, University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece, email:
jasonp@uom.edu.gr
Maro Vlachopoulou, Professor at the Department of Applied Informatics, Dean of
the School of Information Sciences, University of Macedonia, Greece, email:
mavla@uom.edu.gr
Bertrand Mareschal, Professor at the Solvay Brussels School of Economics and
Management, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium, email:
bmaresc@ulb.ac.be
Abstract
The current paper examines the use of social media in the grocery sector, in North
Greece. It should be mentioned that the grocery sector includes supermarkets, grocery
stores, convenience stores, kiosks, mini markets, as well as other street markets.
According to recent reports published by the Insitute of Retail and Consumer Foods
and the Hellenic Statistical Authority (IELKA, 2011; ELSTAT, 2019) the total
turnover of grocery retail in Greece exhibits increasing economic potentials and is
estimated around 30 to 32 billions yearly, whilst the turnover in category of
supermarket chains represent only 40 percent of the total turnover (with around 12
billion Euros), which clearly indicates the substantial future development
opportunities of this division amid the financial crisis. On the other hand, the food and
grocery sector shows an increasing number of specialized food stores all over the
globe (Howell, 2006). For example, policy makers are trying to offer competitive and
branded products that have better quality, taste, environmentally friendly ingredients
(Aertsens et al., 2011; Lee and Worsley, 2005,). Additionally, they are trying to find
new ways to influence consumer purchase decisions through the crafting of digital
transformation strategies with the use of social media metrics and analytics in
marketing (Misirlis and Vlachopoulou, 2018, 2019; Karczmarczyk, 2018).
Specifically, this work focuses on the effort of supermarket entrepreneurs to best
evaluate the effects of social media on the consumer decision-making process. The
changes in the digital age through the use of web 2.0 tools, provides to consumers a
plethora of interactive and user control information that helps them to acquire and
share valuable contents of the most famous sites, like the Facebook, Twitter,
Linkedin, Instagram, Pinterest YouTube, etc., which in turn drive and monitor their
purchase decision preferences (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010). Therefore, the bulk of
information produced by the social media tools mirrors to marketing decision-makers
the consumers’ wants, beliefs, commitment habits and purchasing intentions (Qiang
and Miller, 2019) as it provides useful insights in the development of marketing
strategies.
In order to achieve our goal, we selected to use the methodology of Preference
Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE)
developed by Brans et al. (1986). Specifically, the version of PROMETHEE II (Brans
and Mareschal, 1994) is applied for the assessment of the different social media
alternatives and criteria for complete ranking evaluations of the assigned weights and
values taken by relevant decision makers. The empirical data was collected through
personal interviews with relevant entrepreneurs, where they assessed the importance
of Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s), i.e. reach rate, engagement, amplification,
virality, conversion, click through and bounce) on the use of different types of social
media in order to influence the consumer decision-making stages (like the need
recognition, information search, alternatives evaluations, purchase decision, and postpurchase
decision). The findings of this study, identify the importance of social media
categorizations in the buying decision process, which actually helps decision-makers
to provide a systematic approach to how this information is used in a purchase
decision task. The contribution of this paper provides a better explanation on how the
social media indicators are used by marketers and data analysts in the current sector in
analyzing the void of the consumer decision-making process. What is more, the
results of this study contribute refreshing insights into social media usage as a guide
to measure purchase decisions orientations.
Keywords: Social media, purchase decision-making process, PROMETHEE II
References
Aertsens J., Koen M., Wim V., Jeroen B., and Van Huylenbroeck, G. (2011) The
influence of subjective and objective knowledge on attitude, motivations and
consumption of organic food. British Food Journal, 113 (11): 1353-1378.
Brans, J. P., & Mareschal, B. (1994) The PROMCALC & GAIA decision support
system for multicriteria decision aid. Decision Support Systems, 12(4–5), 297–
310.
Brans, J.P; Vincke, Ph; Mareschal, B, (1986) “How to select and rank project: The
PROMETHEE method”. European Journal of Operation Research, 2: 228-238.
Hellenic Statistical Authority-ELSTAT (2019) Greece in figures July-September
2019. Retrieved from https://www.statistics.gr/en/greece-in-figures, Accessed
25-10-2019.
Institute of Retail Consumer Goods-IELKA (2011) And overview of the Greek
grocery retail sector, June 2011, http://www.ielka.gr/wpcontent/
uploads/2013/07/An-overview-of-the-Greek-grocery-retail-sectorwhite-
paper.pdfAthens. Accessed 15-12-2019.
Lee, E. and Worsley, T. (2005) “Australians” organic food beliefs, demographics and
values. British Food Journal, 107(11), 855-869.
Karczmarczyk A, Jankowski J, Wątróbski J (2018) Multi-criteria decision support for
planning and evaluation of performance of viral marketing campaigns in social
networks. PLoS ONE 13(12): e0209372.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209372.
Howell, D. (2006) Suppliers of variety grows along with consumer preference fro
organic food. Drugstore News, 28 (6), 57.
Misirlis N., and Vlachopoulou M. (2019) A Unified Framework for Decision-Making
Process on Social Media Analytics. In: Sifaleras A., Petridis K. (eds)
Operational Research in the Digital Era – ICT Challenges. Springer
Proceedings in Business and Economics. Springer, Cham.
Misirlis, N., and Vlachopoulou, M. (2018). Social media metrics and analytics in
marketing – S3M: A mapping literature review. International Journal of
Information Management. 38, 270-276.
Qiang, S. and Miller, R. (2019) How social media communications combine with
customer loyalty management to boost green retail sales. Journal of Interactive
Marketing, 46, 87-100.

54
Georgios Aretoulis / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 03:58:47 PM »
Selection of Ideal Project Managers based on PROMETHEE and the Special Profile of the Decision Maker
The current research aims at ranking and identifying the most efficient Project Manager (PM) based on personality attributes, using PROMETHEE methodology and at the same time considering the personal assessment and preferences of the decision maker. In this respect, it firstly analyzes PMs and their role, responsibilities and the required personality characteristics and attributes of what is considered a successful PM. The paper highlights the results of a structured questionnaire survey that evaluated the importance of the project managers’ required attributes based on 497 responses from Greek engineers. The survey was carried out via emails and interviews with experts in project management. The results of the independent sample T – test identify the differences among male and female decision makers regarding the required attributes of competent PMs. Finally, Visual PROMETHEE was applied, in an effort to identify and highlight the most effective Project Manager taking into account the managers’ scores regarding specific personality attributes and skills. At the same time, the decisions are taken based on and considering the special characteristics of the decision maker. The proposed methodology aims at suggesting the variations in the decisions in the selection process of the most competent PM based on the gender of the decision maker. It should be emphasized that the ranking of available PMs considers their personality traits and the specific preferences of the decision maker. Random profiles of PMs enter the ranking process. Two different sets of PMs profiles were considered. The findings suggest that the ranking of PMs both for male and female decision makers remains the same. Finally, a more holistic approach towards the selection of the most competent PM, should consider more special characteristics of the decision maker and at the same time focusing on the PM the personality attributes and abilities and also the technical skills, as these are identified by the project requirements.

55
Rachid Noureddine / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 03:58:11 PM »
Contribution of the MCDM techniques in the maintenance function: PROMETHEE VS TOPSIS & Criticality matrix
Rachid Noureddine1, Mohammed Abdelghani Bouchaala2, Myriam Noureddine3 1,2Institute of maintenance and industrial safety, University of Oran 2 Mohamed Ben Ahmed, Oran, Algeria
1noureddine.rachid@univ-oran2.dz
2bouchaala.abdelghani@univ-oran2.dz
3University of Science and Technology of Oran Mohamed Boudiaf, Oran, Algeria myriam.noureddine@univ-usto.dz
The maintenance function is recognized by manufacturers and scientists as a key lever for controlling risks and optimizing company performance. In this context, the maintenance decision-making process is located at several levels involving foremost, the identification of the most critical equipment. This decision problem is usually handled in maintenance studies using classical risk assessment methods such as the criticality matrix and the Pareto diagram. Knowing that criticality depends on many factors, the framework of Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques is well suited for the prioritization of critical equipment. However, the availability of a wide range of these techniques poses a choice problem for decision-makers. Indeed, different MCDM techniques may result different outcomes when applied to the same problem.
In this work, we propose a classification of industrial equipment following a comparative approach between PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation), TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and the criticality matrix method. The prioritization of the 12 pieces of equipment considered, in the studied gas complex, is carried out according to fundamental and essential criteria in maintenance which are reliability, productivity and costs. In order to ensure the consistency of the judgments, the evaluation of the behavior of each piece of equipment in relation to these 3 criteria was carried out using industrial history data.
The methodological support of the proposed approach integrates the sequential steps of any multi-criteria analysis approach, which we have grouped into two modules. The first module concerns the evaluation of the criteria on each piece of equipment, sanctioned by a performance table. The second module defines the criteria aggregation approach achieved through the implementation of the three methods falling under complete and partial aggregation. The final result is the classification of equipment according to their criticality degree.
The complete criteria aggregation method based on the criticality matrix model is a hierarchy of indices incoming from an arithmetic calculation for each action (equipment), independently. The contribution of the PROMETHEE method is interesting due to the fact that a degree of global preference is taken into account for the calculation of the flows for a given action, which implies a dependence between the actions. Thus, in the case where the criticality is the same for values of different criteria, a ranking is obtained which allows prioritizing the maintenance actions, compared to the model based on the criticality matrix. This case was well
PROMETHEE days 2020, Rabat, Morocco, June 2-4
illustrated for 50% of the equipment. On the other hand, the classification is identical according to the 3 methods for the top 4 critical equipment. The PROMETHEE-TOPSIS comparison shows that each method has an advantage of precision over the other at some point, in the provided classification. The differences are manifested first by an additional class in the TOPSIS classification as well as a dissimilarity between the results affecting 50% of the equipment. However, the results obtained with PROMETHEE seem overall more reliable, since they respect better the weighting of the chosen criteria and show fewer false evaluations.
In conclusion, for the prioritization of critical equipment in the maintenance function, the choice of PROMETHEE over the criticality matrix is clearly to be preferred. Compared to TOPSIS, PROMETHEE also seems more precise because its outcome is generally closer to the logical reasoning. Thus, the final classification obtained shows the contribution of the method in providing accurate results on the prioritization of equipment.
Keywords: MCDM, PROMETHEE, TOPSIS, Criticality matrix, Maintenance, Prioritization.

56
Deepali Ujlambkar / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 03:53:07 PM »
Allocation of links on OBS defined networks using PROMETHEE-II MCDM method
The optical burst switching (OBS) defined networks are emerging as a new infrastructure optical internet in the 21st century. The high demand for network bandwidth is a major challenge due to the increase in the global popularity of optical Internet. In order to minimize the consumption of bandwidth and to increase the network throughput, we are proposing a PROMETHEE-II based MADM approach in this paper. Once the traffic is classified at Optical switches, the normal traffic is to be channelized onto the links. Four criteria (hop count, bandwidth, wavelength, and traffic load) are considered and by applying the PROMETHEE-II MCDM method, the ranking of links is determined. The normal traffic is channelized on the link with top ranking. This proposed work would help in reducing congestion on the optical links, increasing the throughput of the network and in enhancing the transmission rate of the data. The proposed work is divided into two phases, the first phase would calculate the values for the criteria considered for the study and second phase will allow the pairwise comparison of the criteria along with determining the ranks of the links.

57
Sachin Sakhare / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 03:52:29 PM »
Assignment of resources available at Edge-cloud to IoT users using PROMETHEE-II MADM approach
An efficient scheduling of IoT based tasks over Edge cloud is the dire need of the era for achieving optimum consumption of the energy and compute resources and well-timed completion of IoT tasks. The aim is to schedule the IoT tasks using the multi-criteria PROMETHEE-II method for assigning the best apposite resource to the IoT user for the completion of IoT tasks. The proposed method will optimize the utility of resources and assists in allocating suitable resources from Edge cloud to the connected IoT devices. During the last decade, researchers have out several efforts to assign resources on cloud and grid by using bio-inspired algorithms and MCDM techniques. Currently, IoT devices are increasing rapidly and rather than assigning the resources from cloud, edge cloud is playing major The objective of our research study in this paper is to use the PROMETHEE-II MADM method for better assignment of resources available at Edge-cloud to IoT users. A pairwise comparison of Edge-cloud resources is made using PROMETHEE-II and then ranking resources is attained. The top-ranked resource is assigned to IoT user/device. The statistical performance evaluation shows that the PROMETHEE-II based assignment of resources optimizes the utility of resources and facilitates in providing QoS(quality of services) to IoT users.

58
Neelesh Chourasiya / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 03:51:45 PM »
MADM approach for resource assignment to the offloaded mobile Application at cloud
The use of hand-held devices such as mobile phones and tablets has been increased rapidly in the recent years. The execution of software and mobile applications on mobile phones can direct towards the deprived performance against response-time and energy consumption. By proposing offloading aspect of App workloads, we have tried to enhance the performance of mobile devices and by proposing PROMETHEE MADM based technique, we have tried to deploy the most suitable resources available at Edges of clouds. The computation offloading in mobile devices consumes battery and time for moving the data from mobile devices to edges of cloud. To make use of cloud services offered by the cloud-edges, there is a need of multi-criteria based approach that not only compares the resources with respect to their attributes but also provides ranking of the resources to assign fastest resource to the mobile App. Eventually, the proposed method will optimize the execution time of mobile App and will reduce the energy consumed by the respective mobile App. Though many research efforts have been made in this decade to reduce the execution time of mobile Apps and energy consumed by mobile Apps by using offloading concept but after making the decision to execute the App at cloud-edge, it is vital to compare the resources for execution of mobile App to save energy and execution time. However, the concept of offloading has been evolved to fulfill the requirements of mobile users who wish to run multiple applications simultaneously and are in dire need of seamless connectivity to the network but offloading is not a promising solution until some next level method is not available to decide what cloud resource is to be allocated to the mobile user. If the mobile App takes more time and consumes more battery if executed on cloud then offloading is meaningless. In this paper, we are presenting the PROMETHEE-II MADM based technique for allocating resources from edge-cloud to mobile App after the mobile App is offloaded to the nearest edge of cloud for saving energy and execution time.

59
Jeanne Téwa Togbodouno / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 03:47:45 PM »
Performance of endogenous adaptation measures to the flooding risk in the context of climate change in the urban municipality of Gueckédou in Guinea
Flooding is one of the oldest natural phenomena on the planet, causing damages. These damages most often affect the people, goods, services and activities of a community. Vulnerability and adaptation to the risk of urban flooding has become a concern, particularly in the African context, which is characterized by a great exposure to the consequences of this phenomenon. In the urban community of Gueckedou, flooding is caused by the overflow of the Waou and Boya rivers, which are the tributaries of the Makona River, 262 km long. It frequently leads to loss of life, housing, crops in the lowlands, agricultural production for food and trade, public health problems and periodic displacement of populations. The overall objective of the study is to improve the resilience of communities and resources to flood risks. This contribution assesses the performance of endogenous adaptation measures used to cope with flooding. The methodological framework is based on a combination of historical, participatory, geomatics and multi-criteria decision-aid (MCDA) approaches in a multi-stakeholder context. The participatory approach, in a multi-stakeholder context, allowed the involvement of several actors in the decision-making process. It promoted transparency and the consideration of the concerns of the various actors in the process of assessing endogenous adaptation measures with a view to strengthening the adaptation capacities of institutional actors and communities. The MCDA approach allowed to analyze the performance of the endogenous adaptation measures practiced by the communities, to identify the actors in the decision-making process, as well as the environmental, socio-cultural and economic issues. The criteria used were designed on the basis of expert opinion. These criteria were broken down into indicators to assess the most successful endogenous adaptation measures, in a participative and enriched decision-making framework. The evaluation matrix of endogenous adaptation measures is structured according to the actors, the endogenous adaptation measures themselves, and the issues that have been translated into criteria and indicators. It is analysed using the Visual PROMETHEE software. Four categories of measures have been identified: physical intervention measures, agricultural knowledge measures, early warning measures based on endogenous knowledge and social and territorial intervention measures for strengthening the adaptive capacity of local communities. In addition, the study shows the need for the participation of several actors, but also, sustainable and effective management of flood risks in an urban context. It illustrates the contribution of endogenous adaptation measures in public policies for disaster management and reduction in Africa, specifically in Guinea.

60
Vinka Monardes / Abstract
« on: April 08, 2020, 03:46:57 PM »
The role of multi-criteria decision analysis in public policies for the management of tailings dams
Vinka Monardes1,3, Rodrigo Barraza1,2 , Juan M. Sepúlveda1
1University of Santiago, Santiago, Chile
2Santo Tomás University, Santiago, Chile
3University of Antofagasta, Antofagasta, Chile
Abstract
In this article the environmental issue of tailing dams is exposed and how multi-criteria decision analysis can help in prioritizing those sites to promote circular economy measures in order to reduce the impacts of this type of waste generated by the mining industry.
1. Introducción
The metallic minerals that are exploited and processed in a copper concentration plant, according to the flotation plant’s recovery rate, produce as waste the so called tailings, which is the part of the ore that is discarded because it does not have an economic value for the company. In the case of Chile, an amount greater than 95% of the processed ore becomes the tailings. This is removed in the form of pulp, which is a suspension of solid and water, in which the solid is ground to a very fine size, less than 0.5 mm [1]. As stated by [1], “the mineral tailings can contain varying amounts of different elements that can cause damage to human and / or environmental health, such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury and others” and also it notes that “the risk of damage can be even greater for mining waste, mineral processing tailings or metallurgical waste from older operations, since metal recovery rates were generally much lower than modern operations”.
The process begins with the extraction, where primary copper can be present in different mineralogical species. Mainly, oxidized and sulphured minerals are processed, with copper sulphides becoming more abundant, while copper oxides, which are processed by hydrometallurgy, are increasingly scarce, going from 30.8% in 2015 to 12.0% in 2027 [2]. Both minerals, after being extracted, must undergo a comminution process, using crushers, but in the case of the sulphured ones, after being crushed, they must go to grinding to enter the mineral concentration process, using the buoyancy properties of the copper ore, prior incorporation of a series of chemical reagents and water. Foam flotation is one of the most important and widespread concentration methods, which is based on the exploitation of the differential properties of valuable minerals and bargain, also known as wettability [3]. This process is carried out in flotation cells or tank reactors agitated by injected air bubbles into the pulp. Foam (hydrophobic) is formed on the surface, which is collected as a concentrate rich in copper ore, the pulp of this process feeds the next cell, and so on. Finally, the discard of the process, called "tailings", is transported to a tank away from the facilities.
2. The situation of tailing dams in Chile
In 1980, a public service supervised by the Ministry of Mining (MM) was born in Chile, with the name of “National Geology and Mining Service” (Sernageomin), whose current mission is to be a “technical body responsible for generating, maintaining and disseminating information on basic geology and resources and geological hazards of the national territory, for the well-being of the community and at the service of the country, and for regulating and supervising compliance with mining regulations on safety, property and closure plans, for contribute to the development of national mining ”[4]. This service, in conjunction with other high-level organisms concerned with environmental regulations, such as: the Ministry of Environment (MMA), the Superintendency of the Environment (SMA), and the Service for Environmental Assessment, among others, provide the country´s governmental system regarding the environmental matters at the national level. In 2018, the MM of Chile announces a series of measures to provide security and deliver information to communities that have the presence of tailings nearby. This waste may be present as: active tailings and abandoned and inactive tailings. According to the denomination of Sernageomín (2019) [4] the “active tailings deposits” are those that have a known owner and are operating; those classified as "non-active" are deposits with known owners, but out of operation, which are still without legal closure, and those classified as "abandoned" are deposits that have no known owner or resolution of origin.
Chile ranks first in the world of copper production with 5,872,027 metric tons, which is equivalent to 28.3% of that world production (20,742,000 metric tons). The ore processing capacity is concentrated in the center and north of the country, both concentration and leaching, mainly in the Antofagasta region with 35% of the flotation capacity and 75% of the national leaching capacity. As shown in Table 1, the largest amount of tailings deposits are from the Atacama and Coquimbo Regions, which are directly linked to sectors where that are many smaller sites, which does not necessarily imply a greater material volume.
Table 1: Regional distribution of the state of tailings deposits in the country, year 2018.
Región
Active
Not active
Abandoned
Total
Tarapacá
1
0
6
7
Antofagasta
13
22
16
51
Atacama
29
108
23
160
Coquimbo
31
249
106
386
Valparaíso
14
55
11
80
Metropolitana
6
14
6
26
O`Higgins
3
15
1
19
Maule
4
4
0
6
Aysén
1
4
4
9
TOTAL
102
471
173
744
Source: Sernageomin (2019) [4].
The WISE Uranium Project database [5], presents a chronology of major tailings dam failures in the world, from 1960 to 2 Oct 2019 (date of literature review), it mentions that the availability of data is limited since the compilation is not complete, but according to our assessment, this information is adequate, reporting: Date; Location; Mother company; Type of ore; Type of incident; Release; and impacts. In the case of Chile, for the copper ore, 9 incidents are registered, one in 2003, in the town of Cerro Negro, Petorca province, Valparaíso region, whose incident was a failure of the tailings dam, being released 50,000 tons of tailings, where the tailings flowed 20 kilometers downstream of the La Ligua River. The second and third episode corresponded in 1985, located in Veta de Agua No.1 and Cerro Negro No.4, the first occurred due to the failure of the dam wall, due to liquefaction during the earthquake, being released 280,000 m3, where the tailings flowed 5 km downstream and the second one occurred due to the failure of the dam wall, also due to liquefaction during the earthquake, 500,000 m3 wastes, where the tailings flowed 8 km downstream. And the last 6 episodes of spills happened in 1965, in Bellavista; Cerro Negro No.3; Copper New Dam; Copper Old Dam; Patagua New Dam and Los Maquis, where all dam failures occurred during the earthquake, the last 3 being specified as a liquefaction, with a spill of 70,000 m3; 85,000 m3; 350,000 m3; 1.9 million m3; 35,000 m3; 21,000 m3, respectively. Where the tailings flowed 800 meters downstream, 5 km downstream, 12 km downstream (they destroyed the town of El Cobre and killed more than 200 people), without information, 5 km downstream and 5 km downstream, respectively. It is also necessary to point out the impacts produced by those deposits that are cataloged with the “abandonment” status, for example, one of the cases mentioned by [6], which occurred in Chañaral, in March 2015, which was dragged of material, caused by a flood. [7] points out the concerning situation in Chile regarding the abandonment of tailings landfills due to the lack of environmental regulation that existed before the 19300 law, indicating, in addition, that these discharges were carried out in soils, rivers and the sea, for decades, where there was pollution, pointing out the consequences of people's health problems and the environment.
After the disaster of the collapse of a dam in Brazil (locality of Brumadinho), which occurred on January 25, 2019, several countries reviewed their own situation, to avoid any kind of catastrophe. Chile was not oblivious to this scenario. In response, there is the National Tailings Deposit Plan policy, which rests on three pillars: population security, environment, and circular economy and innovation. But, in addition, a pilot plan for direct monitoring of tailings dams is initiated, where the MM states that “this will have a direct relationship with Sernageomin and in turn, with Onemi (National Emergency Office), so that as well as in the case of tsunami warnings, people who are downstream receive a warning to the cell phone in the event of an emergency, so that they leave the area that could be affected”. In 2018, the MM announces different measures in search of promoting the remediation and reprocessing of abandoned mining sites, such as reprocessing them, among other ideas that work in a “Bank of Ideas”. Also in this regard, it is mentioned to use the SEIA (Environmental Impact Evaluation System) tool, in order to compensate for the impacts of mining companies, worrying about environmental liabilities (abandoned tailings). Despite being safely confined, the fundamental problem of tailings lies in the failure that the measures for the protection of mining waste can present over time, since mineral processing tailings can have consequences that lead to human disasters and / or the environment, which could be very economically large, leaving a bad image to the owner of the mine.
3. Case Study
The case study was developed by an iterative process of data collection during 2018 from the Sernageomin [4]. This service provides locations, areas, and the possible contents of recoverable materials according to their own studies. The research focused on the data analysis of the geographical location of tailings dams, their current volume, their authorized volume, and the characterization and current chemical composition of each of such dams. The case was developed finally with 101 tailings dams located in the Coquimbo Region, out of a total of 644 in the country (Table 1), considered as critical according to technical criteria. The databases used in the case study correspond to the data obtained from strategic technological programs managed by the Chilean government for the recovery of elements of value in tailings deposits.
The proposed approach from the industrial engineering viewpoint is the installation of recovery plants near the sites where the tailings dams are located. The location of such plants will depend on production and transportation costs but also on the potential economic value of the materials left in the tailings. The 101 dams classified as “not active” and “abandoned” were prioritized by using the PROMETHEE method [8][9] as Phase 1 of the study. The study, after the dams ranking, follows with Phases 2 and 3 with plant location algorithms used as hubs for the nearby dams. These phases, given the large number of nodes, used data mining techniques: k-medoids and k-means, respectively [10].
In Phase 1, the criteria of current volume of tailings deposited in the dam included the concentration of: copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), barium (Ba), vanadium (V), and lead (Pb). The weights assigned to the decision criteria were 1/6 for each one; in this case all weights are equal, but this may vary according to the objectives of study. The preference function was the step function. The output of Phase 1 (PROMETHEE) was 101 dams. The remaining ones were discarded because of the low concentration of valuable recovered materials. Figure 1 shows the type of results from the three phases.
Fig.1. The solutions obtained by optimization algorithm.
4. Conclusions and Further Research
In this paper was shown the usefulness of PROMETHEE as a strategic decision-making tool. Real world complex problems such as the environmental ones, need tools to set priorities due to the large amount of data and decision variables, the multiple interrelationships between the variables and the criteria for public planning. The output is reliable information to guide public policies and to orientate private companies where to put their efforts thinking in a sustainable production model. In such a model, economic, environmental, and social issues must be in equilibrium. Although, the model was developed for the pre-established configuration of the case study, the decision criteria and parameters considered may be adapted to any case where a mining company wants to achieve an efficient interaction of the transport of tailings with the location of a reprocessing plant. The case study demonstrates the feasibility of applying modeling techniques for the progressive analysis of the impact of tailings deposits in relation to the country’s goal of exporting eight million tons of copper and other minerals by 2035.
Regarding future research, the initial ranking obtained from the first phase in the PROMETHEE method may have a smoothing in terms of the hierarchy obtained; to that end, it is necessary, however, to use other decision functions, such as: linear, logistics, Gaussian, among others. Other criteria related to sustainability issues may also be included.
Acknowledgments
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of DICYT of the University of Santiago of Chile (USACH), Grant N° 061119SS, and the Sustainable Development Division, Ministry of Mining, Government of Chile.
Ms. Monardes was supported in her research visit at USACH by University of Antofagasta, Chile, MINEDUC-UA project, code ANT1755.
References
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[3]. Moimane, T.M; Corin, K.C.; Wiese, J.G. (2016). Investigation of the interactive effects of the reagent suite in froth flotation of a merensky ore. Minerals Engineering, vol. 96-97 pp 39-45.
[4] SERNAGEOMIN, Misión. website, available at: https://www.sernageomin.cl/mision-y-vision-institucional/ [Last access: 2019 12 17].
[5] WISE Uranium Project. Chronology of major tailings dam failures. To access: http://www.wise-uranium.org/mdaf.html [Last access: 2019 12 17].
[6] Riquelme-Rodriguez, JP; Monardes Versalovic, V. (2015). Propuesta de optimización usando un modelo matemático en minimizar impacto ambiental y económico en problemática aluvional. XI Congreso Investigación Operativa ICHIO, Antofagasta, Chile. ISBN 978-956-287-373-4.
[7] Ghorbania, Y.; How Kuan, S. (2016). A review of sustainable development in the Chilean mining sector: past, present and future. International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment. pp. 1-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17480930.2015.1128799
[8] Brans, J-P, Vincke, Ph. (1985). A preference ranking organization method. Management Science 31(6), 647-656.
[9] Behzadian, M., Kazemzadeh, R., Albadvi, A., Aghasi, M. (2010). PROMETHEE: A comprehensive literature review on methodologies and applications. European Journal of Operational Research 200(1), 198-215.
[10] Barraza, R., Sepúlveda, J.M., Venegas, J., Monardes, V., Derpich, I. (2020). A Model for Solving Optimal Location of Hubs: A Case Study for Recovery of Tailings Dams, Proceedings International Conf. on Computers, Communications, and Control, May 11-15, Oradea, Romania, 2020.

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